ALLERGY - understanding symptom Cause diagnosis Treatment Prevention

Understanding Allergies

Allergy is a reaction of the immune system to something that is considered dangerous even though not dangerous. It can be a substance that entered or come into contact with the body
ALLERGY - understanding symptom Cause diagnosis Treatment Prevention

Allergens or substances trigger allergies affect only the people who have these allergies. In others, these allergens will not trigger an immune response. Some types of substances that can cause an allergic reaction include insect bites, dust mites, animal dander, medications, certain foods, as well as pollen.
When the body was first passed by an allergen, the body will produce antibodies due to consider it as something dangerous. If the body is back in contact with the same allergen, the body will increase the number of antibodies to these allergens. This is what triggers the release of chemicals in the body (histamine) and cause allergic symptoms.
Symptoms Appear When Allergies
There are several symptoms of allergies are common, among others:
  • Sneezing.
  • Coughing .
  • Hard to breathe.
  • Rashes on the skin .
  • A runny nose.
  • Swelling in the body that passed by allergens, such as the face, mouth and tongue.
  • Itching and redness.
  • Red eyes, watery.
  • Abdominal pain, vomiting, or diarrhea
The severity of the allergy also different in each person, no experience mild allergic reactions and no severe to fatal called anaphylaxis . If anaphylaxis, you require emergency medical treatment.
The most powerful way to prevent allergies is to avoid themselves from substance triggers or allergens. But if the allergy symptoms already appeared, there are some anti-allergy medications that can help.

Symptoms Of Allergies

Symptoms of an allergic reaction usually appear a few minutes after contact with an allergen. These symptoms can also be developed gradually over a few hours. Allergy symptoms we experience generally depends on the type of allergen and the way we make contact with the allergen. For example, due to food allergy symptoms will cause symptoms in the mouth or digestive system, while the dust will cause allergy symptoms in the respiratory system. The following is a detailed explanation.

Allergies Due Insect bites or stings

In addition to swelling of the bitten part, this type of allergy can cause an itching all over the body, coughing , tightness in the chest, shortness of breath, and severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis).

Allergies Due to Substance d ar i Air

If you have allergies to airborne substances such as dust, pollen, or dust mite, the primary symptom that you will experience typically is sneezing. These symptoms can develop into a runny or blocked nose that trigger breathing difficulties. Itching of the nose, eyes red, watery, and swelling may also appear.

Due to Food Allergies

Allergies because certain foods can cause a tingling or itchy sensation in the mouth. Swelling of the lips, tongue, eyes, throat, or face may also occur. In addition, allergies may also result in rashes itching and hives, nausea, abdominal pain , and diarrhea .

Due Allergy Medication

Medication can also cause allergic reactions. Symptoms may include itching of the skin, rash, facial swelling, difficulty breathing and anaphylaxis .
In addition to the above symptoms, allergies can also appear when the skin is touched by a particular substance. For example, soap, shampoo, perfume, or ingredients of natural rubber (latex). Allergies of this type will result in a type of inflammation of the skin which is known as atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis causes the symptoms of itching, rash, and scaly.
If you've ever felt the symptoms above, you should find out the cause to be discussed with the doctor so that your allergies can be handled.

Recognizing Symptoms of Anaphylaxis

Some allergic reactions can sometimes cause severe and fatal, ie anaphylaxis. This reaction will generally occur on the whole body and spread very quickly. Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:
  • Dizzy.
  • Severe shortness of breath.
  • Fainting due to blood pressure down.
  • Nausea.
  • Gag.
  • Rashes on the skin.
  • Rapid pulse, but weak.
  • Skin and blue lips.
  • Fainting or loss of consciousness.
Patients with anaphylaxis requiring emergency medical treatment. Anaphylactic reactions can be treated with injections or drug epinephrine.


The substance causing allergy or allergen is usually harmless and does not cause allergic symptoms in others. Some types of allergens that generally can cause allergies include:
  • Insect bites, such as bee stings.
  • Certain foods, such as nuts, seafood, and milk.
  • The substance in the air, such as animal dander, dust mites or pollen.
  • Drugs, such as penicillin.
  • Allergens are in contact with the skin directly, for example chemicals in perfumes, soaps, shampoos or latex.
An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system reacts to allergens which it considers a threat, even if it is not. Therefore, it becomes an antibody called immunoglobulin E (IgE). When the contact between the body and re-occurring allergens, the body produces more IgE. Then IgE will trigger the release of natural chemicals such as histamine that cause allergy symptoms.
A person's risk for developing allergies may also increase because of heredity and environment. This generally occurs in children. If your mother or father have certain allergies, children are also at high risk of having allergies, although not always the same type of allergy.
Environmental factors may also affect the risk of allergies. Research shows that the longer and often someone exposed to specific allergens then the risk for allergies will be higher. Another thing that can lead to allergies is smoke, pollution, infections and hormones.

Allergy Diagnosis

At the initial stage, the doctor will ask for details of symptoms, frequency and time of appearance, and allergens that you are experiencing. The doctor will also check parts of the body affected by allergies. If the allergen you have not known with certainty through the initial examination, the doctor will usually recommend some tests for further evaluation.

Test Paste ( Patch Test )

Patch test ( patch test) is a test to diagnose allergies are quite safe and not invasive. In the test patch, one type of allergen would be placed at a certain point, and then applied to the skin for two days while watching the reaction of the skin. Patch testing is used to evaluate contact dermatitis.

Prick Test  Skin

In skin prick tests, the patient's skin will be spilled liquid common allergens then stabbed subtly and slowly with a needle to see his reaction. If the patient has an allergy to these substances, and itchy red bumps on the skin will appear within 15 minutes.
The skin prick test is usually used to examine the types of food allergies and certain drugs, allergens in the air, and toxins from the insects. These tests include safe and can be used on everyone.
In addition to a skin prick test, patch testing can also be done. In the test patch, one type of allergen would be placed at specific places such as plaster, and then applied to the skin for two days while watching the reaction of the skin. Patch testing is used to evaluate contact dermatitis.

Blood tests

Type of blood test used was radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) that will measure the levels of specific IgE in the blood types. Blood tests may be recommended in conjunction with or to replace the skin prick test.
In addition to the doctor, you can also evaluate allergens that you or your child experience by watching the foods consumed and allergic reactions that cause to the body.
If your allergies are suspected food allergy, then another test is recommended elimination test. This test is done by avoiding the kind of food that is suspected to be an allergen to see the difference in the reaction of the symptoms experienced. Then the same types of food to try again after a few weeks to wait for the next reaction. In some cases, a food challenge test is also to see the reaction of people to the strict supervision of a physician. During this test, the allergens given to patients gradually. Although the risk of a severe allergic reaction, including the most accurate way to determine a food allergy.
In addition to the doctor, you can also evaluate allergens that you or your child experience by watching the foods consumed and allergic reactions that cause to the body.

Allergy Treatment

In addition to avoiding the allergen, medical treatment with a drug allergy also aims to control allergy symptoms appear. Type of drugs for allergies are:


These drugs work by blocking the effects of histamine in allergic compounds. Antihistamines can be used in the form of tablets, creams, liquids, eye drops or nasal spray, depending on the area affected by allergies. Some types of antihistamines will cause drowsiness after consumption. Therefore avoid taking antihistamines that cause drowsiness shortly before driving a vehicle or machine.

Corticosteroid inhaler

These drugs are effective to deal with inflammation in allergy cases. These steroids can be obtained in the form of nasal sprays, eye drops, creams, inhalers and tablets. Side effects are less than corticosteroids in tablet form, because it only works in one particular area and little is absorbed by the body.


In addition to tablets and capsules, the drug is also available in the form of drops or nasal spray. Decongestants are useful to help relieve nasal congestion. This drug is only recommended for short-term use (less than one week).

leukotriene inhibitors

Leukotriene are compounds that can cause swelling of the airways during an allergic reaction. This drug works to inhibit the effects of leukotrienes. These drugs can be used in tablet form.
If you suffer from severe allergies or who can not be cured by other treatments, doctors may recommend immunotherapy allergens ( desentilisastion )  In this therapy, the dose of allergen in small quantities administered via injection, the droplets ( ROP ) or a tablet placed under the tongue. The provision of these allergens is done for several years. The goal is to familiarize the body with the allergen seh i guns do not overreact. Although not heal completely, it would make more mild allergy symptoms.

Treatment for Anaphylaxis

If allergy you have the possibility to cause an anaphylactic attack, it is advisable to always carry epinephrine injections prescribed by a doctor and use these injections in an emergency. You can also wear a bracelet or necklace allergy markers if possible so that if anaphylaxis occurs, people around will know the cause and act as quickly as possible.

Allergy Prevention

Prevention of allergy dependent on allergen. The most effective way to prevent allergies is to avoid triggers. But not all sources of allergies can be avoided easily as dust mites, pets or food. The following suggestions may help prevent allergies.
  • Wear closed or applying insect repellent lotions while on the move.
  • Avoid wearing perfume or perfume that can attract insects.
  • Use a mask when outdoors.
  • Clean the house regularly, especially the rooms are often used, such as bedrooms and living rooms, to avoid dust mites.
  • Avoiding the use of a feather duster because it can spread allergens.
  • Wipe the furniture with a clean cloth moistened with water or a cleaning liquid or use a vacuum cleaner.
  • Opening a window or door for air circulation more smoothly so that the room does not feel clammy.
  • Putting pets outdoors or in a particular room.
  • Bathe your pet once a week.
  • Cleaning pet cage regularly.
  • Take note of the type of food that is likely to be the source of the allergen can be avoided.
  • Always read the label to find out the ingredients used before to buy food.
  • Asking foodstuffs used in detail before you order it in a restaurant.
  • Cleaning the kitchen to avoid mildew, especially the dishwasher and washing clothes.
  • Do not dry the clothes in the house.
  • Use bracelet that informs you suffer from severe allergies that other people know, especially when you can not communicate when the attacks come allergic reaction.

prevention of Anaphylaxis

Watch out for yourself if you suffer anaphylaxis as if allergic to recur and is not treated as soon as possible, you risk loss of consciousness or even death. You are advised to always carry two doses of epinephrine injections that can be directly used if an anaphylactic attack occurs. Let me know also how to use these injections on people nearby that adenalin injections can be given while awaiting medical help arrived.


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