Amputation - Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis And Treatment

Definition of Amputation

Amputation is the surgical cutting of body parts, such as fingers, arms, or legs. This operation aims to control pain or a disease affecting certain body parts. This procedure can be done in an emergency or planned. Emergency amputation is usually needed when patients experienced a severe accident that requires treatment as soon as possible. Meanwhile, a planned amputation performed after doctors and patients consider various factors.
Amputation - Definition, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis And Treatment
Amputation -

Reasons Behind Prompts Amputation

Amputation is generally a last option recommended by doctors. There are some special considerations in the decision, namely:
  • The emergence of gangrene or tissue death.
  • Severe infection and do not get better though it was addressed. For example, wounds on the feet of people with diabetes are difficult to cure.
  • Cancer is found in the body, such as the bone or muscle tissue.
  • The pain is unbearable ongoing and severe disability and therefore can not function.
  • Severe injury, such as severe burns, injuries due to an explosion, or wounds caused by animal bites.
  • Frostbite or frostbite.

Diagnosis Before Amputation

Before surgery, the doctor will examine your condition to determine the type of amputation process that will be undertaken. The following are some of the methods of inspection are generally recommended:
  • Health test carefully to check the physical condition, kidney function, cardiovascular health, respiratory system functions, as well as nutritional adequacy.
  • Evaluation of psychiatric conditions to assess whether patients can overcome the psychological and emotional impact of the amputation will be undertaken. If necessary, the doctor will advise the patient to undergo psychotherapy after the implementation of the amputation.
  • Examination of the condition and function of limbs would be amputated, for example checking the pulse and the level of sensitivity of the skin around the part to be cut. This process will help the doctor to ascertain how many parts that have to be cut or tissue that should be removed, while reducing the risk of other complications and amputations that might happen in the future.
In addition to the physical and mental condition of the patient, the doctor will also ask about the condition of the house, the family, and the environment. These factors will have an impact on patients' lives during and after the recovery period.

Amputation and Prosthesis

If you decide to use a prosthesis or prostheses, the doctor will help you in choosing the type that suits your needs. Fator factors that should be considered are:
  • Type amputations undertaken.
  • Overall health condition.
  • Muscle strength in the left leg.
  • Function and form the prostheses needed by patients. Prostheses with function and form appropriate to the patient may accelerate the rehabilitation process.

Amputation surgery

In the process of amputation, the doctor will cut the part of the body that require amputation as well as lift the damaged tissues. Amputation is generally carried out while the patient is under sedation. This type of anesthesia will be determined by the patient's body that requires amputation. Epidural anesthesia will be given if the patient will undergo amputation of the lower limbs (such as calf or toes). While the upper limb amputation procedures (eg, hand or finger) will usually require general anesthesia.

Recovery and Rehabilitation Period After Amputation

During the recovery period in the hospital, the patient will be taught how to care for the incision to be able to do it yourself at home. For example, how to clean the wound and changing the bandages. Light physical therapy would be recommended shortly after amputation. Patients will then be trained to use the prostheses in two weeks after surgery. The ideal duration of wound healing is one to two months. Nevertheless, the loss of body parts must have a physical or mental need for adaptation in a long time. Rehabilitation is a crucial step during the recovery period. This process generally includes:
  • Therapy for strength training and muscle control.
  • Occupational therapy for the ability to undergo daily activities.
  • Exercise using prostheses and other assistive devices to get accustomed.
The remaining leg care is also important, especially maintaining the cleanliness of the skin to avoid irritation or infection. The following are signs of infection should be wary of.
  • Red and sensitive skin.
  • Appears swelling or swelling worse.
  • Discharge or pus from the skin.
Wash the remaining legs at least once a day with soap without perfume content. Apply moisturizer before bed or before using prostheses. Cleaning the prostheses used also include an additional step that is important in order to avoid irritation and infection.

complications Amputation

The process of wound healing will also be monitored by a doctor to prevent complications. A planned amputation have a lower risk of complications compared with the emergency amputation. Several types of complications that may occur, for example:
  • Wound infection.
  • Wounds take longer to heal.
  • Blood clotting.
  • Complications of the heart, such as heart attacks .
  • Phantom pain, which is pain felt in the organs of the body which is no longer owned.
  • Psychological disorders, such as depression , can not accept the fact, and even suicidal impulse.


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