BELL'S PALSY : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Definition Of Bell's Palsy


Bell's palsy is a paralysis or weakness on one side of the muscles in the face are temporary. This condition causes one side of the face will look "sag". Although the exact cause is unknown, Bell's palsy is more common in pregnant women, diabetics, and HIV.
The damaged nerves in the face will affect the sense of taste and how your body produce tears and saliva. Bell's palsy came suddenly and general conditions will improve in a matter of weeks.
BELL'S PALSY : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication
In most cases of Bell's palsy, paralysis on one side of the face can be fully restored. If you have paralysis on one side of the face, see your doctor to understand the conditions that occurred while getting the proper medical treatment.

Symptoms of Bell's Palsy

Bell's palsy had different symptoms in some people. Paralysis that occurs on one side of the face can be described as partial paralysis (mild muscle weakness) or total paralysis (no movement at all). Mouth and eyelids may also be affected as a result of Bell's palsy, the second part of this will be difficult to open and close.
Bell's palsy is a disorder that occurs only in the muscles and nerves of the face. This condition does not affect the performance of the brain or other body parts. If paralysis on one side of your face is accompanied by paralysis or weakness on the part of the body, immediately consult a physician.

Why of Bell's Palsy

Bell's palsy occurs when the neural control of muscles in the face irritated or depressed. The cause of nerve irritation is still not known for certain, but some kind of viral infection is suspected to be the cause of this condition, among others: the virus herpes simplex (HSV) , varicella-zoster virus, the Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, syphilis , and Lyme disease .

Diagnosis Bell’s Palsy

To confirm the diagnosis of Bell's palsy, a doctor will ask you a history of your symptoms. In addition, the doctor will perform a physical and neurological examination to determine the function of the facial nerve. If the symptoms are not clear, you may be advised to do some tests, such as electromyography, MRI , or CT scan .

Treating Bell's Palsy

To reduce the swelling that occurs in the facial nerve, prednisolone or prednisone (a corticosteroid drug group) can be used. Meanwhile, to prevent problems in the eye that can not close, you may need eye drops. Meanwhile, to close your eyes, you need insulation.
Bell's palsy can be recovered completely in 70 percent of patients who experienced it. In the vast majority of people suffering from Bell's palsy, symptoms began to improve after two or three weeks. But for a full recovery will require about nine months. Long recovery period depends on the degree of nerve damage suffered.

Complications of Bell's Palsy

The following are some of the complications that may occur as a result of Bell's palsy:
  • Disorders of the eye.
  • Difficulty eating, drinking, and talking.
  • Weakness or paralysis of the muscles continuously.
  • Facial muscles twitch.
  • Ability decreased sense of taste.
Particularly in Bell's palsy associated with heredity, there is the possibility of this condition will reoccur in the future.


Symptoms Of Bell's Palsy

Symptoms appear in Bell's palsy develops rapidly and reached a peak within two days. Symptoms that occur can vary. The following are symptoms that usually appear in Bell's palsy.
  • One side of the face have paralysis or weakness. The affected side of the face would be visible sag and you can not move it. You will find it hard to open or close the eyes and mouth.
  • Earache on the paralyzed side of the face.
  • The affected ear will be more sensitive to noise.
  • Ringing in one ear or both.
  • Reduction or change in sense of taste.
  • Mouth parts affected would be easy dribble.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Pain in the jaw.
  • Headache and dizziness .
  • The difficulty to eat, drink, and talk.
The symptoms that appear above usually will begin to improve within two to three weeks and eventually recover completely within nine to ten months.
There is no test that can be done to make a diagnosis of Bell's palsy. Tests were performed to rule out other neurological disorders, such as stroke. Other conditions that could lead to similar symptoms are:
  • Tumors . Abnormal tissue growth.
  • Stroke . Interruption of blood supply to some parts of the brain are dangerous and can be life threatening.
  • Moebius syndrome . The condition is very rare and appear at birth.
  • Middle ear infections . Conditions are quite common in children caused by bacterial or viral infections.
  • Disease Lyme  . Infections caused by bacteria that spread by ticks.
  • Head InjuryConditions that can happen to everyone from a blow, fall, or accident.
  • Cholesteatoma . Abnormal skin tissue in the middle ear.
The doctor will examine the head, ears, and neck. Then the doctor will also examine the facial muscles to ascertain whether only the facial nerve is affected. If the doctor does not find any other condition, it can be concluded symptoms that occur are due to Bell's palsy.
Here are some tests done can be done:
  • Electromyography . This check is useful to measure the electrical activity of muscles and nerves you. The information provided this tool can be used to determine whether there is nerve damage.
  • MRI . This procedure can be performed to determine the cause of the pressure on the nerves of your face.
  • CT scans . This procedure is performed to determine other conditions that cause your symptoms, check if there is an infection or tumor. This procedure can also determine if there is a fracture in the face.

The Cause Of Bell's Palsy

Bell's palsy is caused by nerves that control muscles or facial nerves that are inflamed or crushed. From the brain, the facial nerve passes through a narrow gap near the upper jaw. When the facial nerve is squeezed or inflamed, the signal that the brain sends to the facial muscles will be disrupted. This disorder that inhibits the supply of blood and oxygen to the nerve cells, resulting in weakness or paralysis of the face.
The cause of nerve irritation is still not known clearly, but the herpes virus is believed to be the main cause of this problem. There are two types of herpes virus that are suspected to cause nerve irritation in waja, namely:
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) . There are two types of herpes simplex virus that is allegedly capable of irritating the facial nerve, the HSV type 1, which causes cold sores (blisters on the lips) and HSV type 2, which causes genital herpes.
  • Varicella zoster virus . This type of virus causes chicken pox and smallpox. This virus is less likely to cause Bell's palsy, but it can lead to more serious conditions, namely Ramsay-Hunt syndrome
In addition to herpes virus, several other viral infection conditions are also suspected of being able to cause Bell's Palsy, including:
  • Disease Lyme . Infections caused by bacteria spread by lice.
  • Syphilis . The disease is caused by a virus , Treponema pallidum .
  • Epstein - Barr virus . This type of virus causes glandular fever.
  • Cytomegalovirus . This virus belongs to the herpes virus group. This virus can cause symptoms similar to flu, glandular fever, sore throat, and swollen glands.
HIV and diabetes are also likely to cause Bell's palsy, although until now the reason is not known with certainty. Upper respiratory tract infection can also be a factor that increases the risk of experiencing Bell's palsy.
In women who are pregnant and entering the third semester also have a higher risk of experiencing Bell's palsy. This disease can occur in the first week of women who have just given birth. In addition, heredity is also influential in increasing the risk of experiencing Bell's palsy. In other words, someone is more at risk of experiencing Bell's palsy if there are any family members with the condition.

Bell's Palsy Treatment


If someone has sudden facial paralysis, you should immediately be taken to the nearest hospital. According to studies, the treatment of Bell's palsy will be very effective if done within the first 3 days after the initial symptoms appear.
Although without special treatment, usually the case of Bell's palsy can be fully restored. Treatment is usually required to speed up the healing process and prevent the emergence of complications due to Bell's palsy.

Handling on Bell's Palsy

Here are some treatments and treatments for Bell's palsy.
  • Prednisolone . This drug is highly recommended as the most effective treatment of Bell's palsy. It should be given 72 hours since the initial symptoms appear. This medicine will be prescribed for 10 days and consumed twice a day. Find out more about prednisolone .
  • Antivirus . Until now, the role of antiviral drugs is still a debate. However, doctors may prescribe antiviral or antiviral combined with prednisone in patients with severe facial nerve defects.
  • Eye care . Patients Bell's palsy will be difficult to close your eyes. This can cause tears to evaporate, so the eyes become drier and more susceptible to infection. Tears play an important role to protect and keep eyes free of dirt and bacteria. Doctors will prescribe eye drops for daytime and eye drops at night.
  • Physiotherapy . Expert physiotherapists will teach you some exercises that can strengthen the muscles of the face. This is done to improve coordination and range of movement. This procedure is very helpful in cases of Bell's palsy, although not everyone is in accordance with this procedure.
  • Botox injections . Especially in patients with chronic or long-term Bell's palsy, botox injections may be given to treat affected and unaffected faces. This injection serves to relax the facial muscles that tighten or reduce unwanted muscle movement. These injections also serve to balance facial movement, overcome the discomfort felt during meals, and improve overall facial appearance. Botox injections generally need to be repeated every four months.
  • Plastic surgery . The surgeon will help overcome the weakness or paralysis of your face. Although surgical procedures can not restore nerve function as before, but can protect the eyes and improve facial appearance, and improve the function of a weak face. Plastic surgery procedures are performed to improve the function of the eyelid, improve the position of the mouth, assist in talking, eating, and drinking, and improve the balance of face shape.
  • Other treatments . Relaxation and acupuncture techniques are said to help speed up recovery from Bell's palsy and restore facial nerve function.

Bell's Palsy Complications


Complications that occur due to Bell's palsy is very dependent on nerve damage that occurs. Most people with Bell's palsy will recover by themselves within a period of nine to ten months. But long-term complications can occur especially if you:
  • Aged over 60 years.
  • Experiencing severe pain when the first symptoms appear.
  • Have total facial paralysis on one side of the face.
  • Experiencing severe facial nerve damage.
  • Have hypertension or diabetes.
  • Is pregnant.
  • The signs of recovery only start after two months.
  • Not experiencing signs of recovery after suffering for four months.
Some sufferers of Bell's palsy will re-experience the disease in the future on the other side of the face. This condition usually occurs when Bell's palsy is related to genetic factors or derivatives.
Here are some of the long-term complications that could be caused by Bell's palsy:
  • Weakness of face . About two to three out of ten people with Bell's palsy will experience permanent facial flaws. Some children are born with paralysis and others suffer from facial weakness after injury to the facial nerve.
  • Speech disorder . This condition arises as a result of damage to the facial muscles of people with Bell's palsy.
  • Dry eyes and corneal ulcers . Corneal ulcers may appear because the eyelids are too weak to fully close. As a result, the eye protective coatings do not work properly. This condition can cause blindness and eye infections.
  • The sense of feeling is reduced or lost . This condition can occur if the nerve damage can not recover properly. Some also often tear when eating.
  • Facial contractures . This condition occurs when the facial muscles experience tension permanently. Facial defects, narrowed eyes, thickened cheeks, and a line between the nose and mouth grow deeper as a result of contracture of the facial muscles.
  • Eye and mouth syncinesis . This condition arises when the facial nerve grows back in a different way. When eating, laughing, or smiling, the eyes can blink. In severe conditions, the eyes will be completely covered when eating.

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