BOTULISM : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Pengertian Botulism

Botulism poisoning is a serious condition caused by toxins produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. This condition is quite rare, but the toxins produced by these bacteria are known as one of the most dangerous poisons and deadly.
Toxins produced by this bacteria attacks the nervous system such as the brain, spine, other nerves, causing muscle paralysis. Paralysis that occurs can attack the muscles that control breathing, it can be deadly and should immediately get treatment. These bacteria usually enter the body through food or through wounds on the body.
BOTULISM : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Penyebab Botulism

Clostridium botulinum bacteria can be found in soil, dust, rivers and the ocean floor. This bacteria is not dangerous in normal environmental conditions, but when deprived of oxygen they would release the poison. Clostridium botulinum bacteria to be deprived of oxygen while in the sealed cans, bottles, mud, and soil that is not moving, or in the human body.
Based on the cause, here are three types of botulism:
  • Botulism food poisoning. Botulism arising from the consumption of low-acid canned foods such as beans, corn, and beets become home to a bacterium Clostridium botulinum. If someone is eating food containing the toxin causes botulism, the toxin will affect nerve function resulting in paralysis.
  • Wound botulism. Botulism appears for wounds in patients infected with the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Bacteria inside the wound then multiply and produce toxins cause botulism.
  • Infant botulism. This botulism occurs when infants ingest spores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The spores of Clostridium botulinum bacteria (usually found on the ground or honey) is ingested by the baby will multiply and produce toxins in the digestive tract. It usually occurs in infants under one year of age.

Gejala Botulism

A symptom is something that is felt and it is reported by the patient. The emergence of botulism symptoms varies from patient to patient, ranging from a few hours to several days after exposure to the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. The perceived symptoms the patient depends on the cause and type of botulism, namely:
  • Botulism food poisoning: difficulty swallowing and speaking, dry mouth, facial muscle weakness, impaired vision, eyelid weakness (drooping), difficulty in breathing, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and paralysis.
  • Wound botulism: difficulty swallowing and speaking, facial muscle weakness, visual impairments, limp eyelids (drooping), difficulty in breathing, paralysis.
  • Botulism baby: constipation, difficulty controlling the head, gestures not bertonus (no muscle tension, like a rag doll), weak cry, irritability, frequent drooling, eyelids limp droop, tiredness, difficulty in sucking or eating, paralyzed.
If not treated quickly and properly, botulism patients can be at risk of some complications such as:
  • Respiratory disorders.
  • Difficulty speaking.
  • It's hard to swallow.
  • Feeling weak continuously.
  • Breathing becomes short

diagnosis Botulism

Diagnosis is a step the doctor to identify the disease or condition based on symptoms and signs experienced by the patient. The doctor will perform a physical examination to check for signs of muscle weakness or paralysis, such as eyelids limp and weak voice.
In addition to a physical examination, the doctor will ask you questions about the food consumed by the patient during the last few days and about the wounds on the body at risk of bacterial infection.
Doctors may suggest blood tests and stool to check whether there are a Clostridium botulinum bacteria in it. If it still exists, suspected foods can also be taken to be tested in the laboratory.
In infant botulism, the doctor will ask the parents of infants whether the baby is fed honey or are experiencing constipation or sluggish. The doctor may also be analyzed blood, feces or vomit baby to identify the toxin causes botulism.

Pengobatan Botulism

Botulism patients need to be hospitalized in the hospital. The goal of treatment is to neutralize the botulism toxins and help the body function (such as breathing) run normally, until the patient recovers.
Botulism Treatment will not cure paralysis of the respiratory muscles and that may have occurred, but the treatment will keep the condition does not worsen. A few weeks or months after treatment, the paralysis that generally appears before the treatment will disappear and the body returns to normal.
Some treatments for patients with botulism usually given by a doctor is:
  • The provision of antitoxin. In patients with botulism or wound botulism food poisoning, a doctor may inject the antitoxin drugs to reduce the risk of complications. Antitoxin to the type of botulism immune globulin is usually administered to treat infant botulism.
  • Giving antibiotics. This procedure is recommended only for patients with wound botulism because antibiotics are hastening the release of toxins.
  • Tools breathing pasan. This tool will be installed by the doctor if the patient has trouble breathing.
  • Rehabilitation. Paralysis in botulism patients can be cured gradually. Patients in need of therapy to help the recovery process of speech, swallowing, and bodily functions affected by botulism.

Pencegahan Botulism

There are several steps that can be taken to prevent a person exposed to botulism, namely:
  • Avoid consuming food with damaged packaging, which is already smelling preserved foods, foods stored at temperatures that do not fit, and expired food.
  • Do not give honey to infants under one year old, although in small amounts, because it is known that honey contains spores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Corn syrup is also prohibited given to infants under one year.
  • Do not use narcotics and illegal drugs.


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