CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Definition Of Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis is an abnormality in the skull that causes the baby's head shape is not normal or disproportionate. The shape of the skull of disproportionate could cause prolonged headache, visual impairments, as well as psychological problems later in life.
The cranium is not an intact skeleton that stands alone, but a combination of seven different bone plates. Seventh bones were connected to each other by a strong elastic tissue called sutures.
CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication
Sutures allow the skull to expand following the growth of brain volume. Over time, the suture has hardened and eventually shut down, to unite the seventh plate of bone that is the skull intact.
A baby is said to have craniosynostosis if one or more of the sutures close the network more quickly than normal. As a result, the baby's brain can not develop to the maximum because it is hampered by the skull. This condition is very dangerous because it can lead to the emergence of several disorders and abnormalities.
Craniosynostosis is a rare disease. Approximately 75 percent of patients with craniosynostosis are boys. Based on the suture disordered, craniosynostosis can be divided into four types, namely:
  • Sagittal . This is the type of craniosynostosis are most commonly found. As the name implies, this disorder occurs in the sagittal suture, which runs from the front to the back of the upper skull ( fontanelles ). This disorder causes the head to grow elongated and slightly flattened.
  • Coronal . The coronal suture extending from the right and left ear to the top of the skull. Disturbances in this section can cause a form forehead becomes unbalanced. The affected part was flat, while the undisturbed stands out.
  • Metopic . Metopic suture extending from the nose through the midline of the forehead to the crown and is connected with the sagittal suture at the top of the skull. This condition causes the forehead to form a triangle with the back of the head just wide.
  • Lambdoid . This condition occurs in the lambdoid suture, which runs from right to left in the back of the skull. This causes most of the side of the baby's head looks flat and the position of one ear higher than the other ear. Lambdoid craniosynostosis very rare.

Symptoms of Craniosynostosis

Signs of craniosynostosis usually appear when the baby is born and has become increasingly apparent after a few months. Such signs include:
  • Fontanelle ( fontanelles ) on the top of the baby's head is not visible.
  • The shape of a baby's skull looks strange (not proportional).
  • The emergence of ICP or increased pressure inside the baby's skull.
  • The baby's head is not grown in line with age.
In some cases, craniosynostosis causing a disturbance or damage to the brain, as well as inhibiting the growth process in general. Complaints that marks this disorder are:
  • Vomiting, spontaneously without prior nausea.
  • Hearing loss.
  • Puffy eyes or difficult to move.
  • More often sleep and rarely play.
  • The breathing hard and irregular.
  • It is easier to cry than usual.

Cause Craniosynostosis

The exact cause of craniosynostosis is not known for sure, but sometimes the condition is associated with a genetic disorder. Based conjunction with other genetic disorders, craniosynostosis divided into two, namely nonsyndromic craniosynostosis and syndromic craniosynostosis.
Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is the most common cause is unknown but is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. While syndromic craniosynostosis associated with certain genetic syndromes, such as Apert syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and many more.

Diagnosis Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis generally handled by a pediatric neurosurgeon or plastic surgeon. To diagnose craniosynostosis , some examinations are to be carried out include:
  • Examination physical . In this examination, the doctor will measure your baby's head, and felt the entire surface of the head to check the state of the sutures and crown.
  • Imaging tests . This examination includes imaging with CT Scan, MRI, or x-rays of the head. This test aims to see whether there is tissue suture which closes more quickly than normal. Scanning with the laser beam can also be done to get the size of the head and skull are accurate.
  • Test genetic . If the suspected linkages with other genetic disorders, the genetic test can be performed to identify the types of genetic disorders that cause.
  • Treatment Craniosynostosis
Craniosynostosis with mild or moderate severity does not require serious treatment. Doctors usually advise patients to use a special helmet that serves smoothed shape of the skull and to help brain development.
If craniosynostosis severe, surgery should be done to reduce and prevent brain pressure, leave a space so that the brain can be developed, as well as smoothing the shape of the skull.
There are two types of surgery that can be done to deal with craniosynostosis , namely:
  • Surgical endoscopy . Minimally invasive surgery is suitable performed for infants younger than six months, on the condition that only one suture is problematic. Through this operation, the suture is problematic to be opened so that the brain can develop normally.
  • Surgery is open . This type of surgery performed for babies over six months, and not only to cope with sutures that are problematic, but also improve the shape of the skull is not proportional. Postoperative recovery period longer than that of open surgery with endoscopic surgery.
Helmet therapy can be provided for smoothing the shape of the skull after endoscopic surgery, but in open surgical treatment is not necessary.

Complications raniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis that weight should not be left without treatment. If not treated, in addition to causing disturbances in the brain, can also cause deformation (deformity) face. This can cause the sufferer craniosynostosis shy to mingle with the people.
Patients with craniosynostosis severe risk of increased intracranial pressure. If not treated, increased intracranial pressure can cause seizures, eyeball movement disorders, blindness, developmental delay, impaired cognitive function, or even death.


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