Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Understanding Deep Vein Thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or deep venous thrombosis is a blood clot that occurs in the deep veins. This condition generally appears in the large veins found in the thighs and calves.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Venous thrombosis can also appear in other veins, such as the arms and can spread to the lungs. The DVT that attacks the lungs can block half or all parts of the pulmonary artery and cause harmful complications called pulmonary embolism (PE) and venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Causes of Deep Vein Thrombosis

Human blood consists of proteins called freezing factors and cells called platelets. Both of these components work by forming solid clods to prevent bleeding when your blood vessels are injured. The combination of slow blood vasculature, blood clotting activation, and blood vessel injury, results in the formation of thrombus (blood clots) that can clog the bloodstream to trigger DVT.
There are many risk factors that can be the cause of DVT, one of which is the presence of this disease in the family history. Patients with VTE and patients with other diseases, such as heart failure and cancer, also have the risk of getting DVT back. Age and weight can also affect a person to have DVT or not. Similarly, someone whose body condition is inactive may trigger DVT.
A body that does not move for long periods of time causes the blood to tend to gather in the lower leg, such as the calves and thighs. This condition is commonly experienced by a person after going through an operation procedure lasting more than 90 minutes or lasting 60 minutes for surgery performed on the abdomen, hip, and leg areas. Similarly, it can be caused by treatments that require patients to remain in bed. Traveling long can keep your body in a state of inactivity for a long time as well. This can lead to slowing of blood flow to increase the risk of blood clots. In the case of inpatients who require long surgery procedures, the hospital will generally provide information on the risks and prevention of DVT at the earliest.
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy used to treat cancer and treatment of diseases caused by other medical or genetic conditions can increase the risk of DVT in patients. In addition to chemotherapy, conditions such as vasculitis and varicose veins may also increase the risk of DVT in the sufferer. Damage to blood vessels caused by this condition makes blood vessels narrowed or clogged so that it can trigger the occurrence of blood clots. Diseases such as heart, lung, hepatitis, and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis also facilitate the occurrence of blood clots. Similarly, genetic conditions, such as thrombophilia and Hughes syndrome.
Other risk factors include pregnancy, the contraceptive pill, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) therapy in estrogen hormone therapy. This condition allows blood to clot more easily. In pregnancy, blood clotting can help prevent patients from losing a lot of blood during labor, but increasing the risk of DVT.
Patients with obesity, elderly with health conditions that do not allow to do many activities, as well as smokers, and conditions of dehydration are also other causes of DVT disease.

Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis

DVT can invade the legs and arms. In some situations, DVT can show symptoms in the affected area so that the patient can feel pain, swelling, and pain in the area. Reddish skin color and warm feeling can be felt, as in the back area of the knee accompanied by growing pain when you bend your legs near the knee. Symptoms that appear can also be seen from the blood vessels around the infected area appear larger than usual.
One of the complications of DVT that does not immediately get treatment is the emergence of a condition called pulmonary embolism. This condition has symptoms, such as chest pain, shortness of breath that appears gradually or suddenly, and suddenly fainted. Both one or both, the symptoms of DVT and pulmonary embolism should be treated immediately so as not to aggravate the patient's condition. DVT is also likely to show no symptoms so it is necessary to watch out for and investigate the signs that appear in someone who has the risk of this disease.

Diagnosis of Deep Vein Thrombosis

Based on the above symptoms, the doctor may advise the patient to go through several physical examinations to obtain a diagnosis and an appropriate treatment plan. In addition to physical examination, the doctor will also ask about the history of family illness to investigate the traces of DVT. Physical examination of laboratory tests may also be performed, such as ultrasound, D-dimer, and venogram tests.
Doppler type ultrasound scans will be used on the examination tests to locate blood clots on the vessels and how fast the blood flow rate is. By knowing these two factors, the location and cause of the agglomeration can be detected immediately.
A special blood test called D-dimer can be identified identifying blood clots that have been decomposed and then entering the bloodstream. The more clots are found the greater the likelihood of blood clots in the patient's blood vessels.
A venogram test may also be performed if the two tests above have not been able to assist the physician in determining or strengthening the DVT diagnosis. This test uses the help of dye and X-ray to determine the location of blood clots. In the venogram, the dye will be injected into the leg veins. This dye then flows to other blood vessels in the area of the patient feeling the symptoms of DVT. If the agglomeration occurs in the calf area, the X-ray result will show the empty area on the calf. This is because the dye can not flow through the calf blood vessels that have clots.

Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis

Treatment of DVT may be given by different methods depending on the patient's body condition as well as the illness suffered. Patients who are pregnant will also get different treatments, including the type of anticoagulant drugs (blood clotting prevention) provided. stocking medical or stocking compression can also be used by patients with DVT to help prevent blood clots.
In addition to preventing the occurrence of blood clots, anticoagulant drugs can also help stop blood clots from spreading to other blood streams and causing the appearance of other blood clots. Heparin and warfarin are two types of anticoagulant drugs commonly used to treat DVT. Heparin is usually given first to prevent blood clots instantaneously. Giving warfarin is also commonly done after the patient is given heparin to prevent the occurrence of further blood clots.
Giving heparin can be done by injection directly on the veins or tissue layer under the skin, can also through the infusion fluids. The dose of heparin may also vary with each patient and the administration should be monitored for the patient to receive the correct dose, making it possible for the patient to be hospitalized for up to 10 days. As with other treatments in general, the use of heparin can also cause certain side effects, such as rashes, bleeding, and bone weakness in long-term use.
Your doctor may recommend warfarin as an advanced treatment of heparin. The drug is administered in tablet form and can be taken for up to six months or more, depending on the advice of the physician. Warfarin is not recommended for pregnant women who are on heparin treatment for a long time. Take care of your health condition during taking warfarin and make sure the doctor's consultation schedule is not escaped from a predetermined schedule until you get a regular dose of warfarin.
The use of stockings compression can also help prevent the formation of the wound and the syndrome after DVT, that calf tissue damage due to increased venous pressure. Stocking compression is used every day for two years or until the specified time and the measurement must be monitored and updated every 3-6 months. This stocking can be released at bedtime or when the patient is doing rest posture with the limb raised, and when the patient is doing regular physical exercise.
Physical exercise that may be recommended to DVT patients is walking. Resting with raised legs is also recommended that the feet are taller than the waist to restore blood flow from the calf.
Alternative treatments may also be given if the use of anticoagulant drugs does not provide an appropriate outcome for the patient. The inferior vena cava filters (IVC) are placed in the blood vessels to filter out the blood clots and stop them from flowing into the heart and lungs. IVC can be installed permanently or released after blood clotting is reduced. Both are performed using surgical procedures with local anesthesia. IVC can also be used in patients with pulmonary embolism and under severe injury conditions.

Complications of Deep Vein Thrombosis

Some of the complications of untreated DVT in addition to the previously mentioned pulmonary embolism disease are post-thrombosis syndrome. This condition causes a blockage in one of the blood vessels in the lung.

Prevention of Deep Vein Thrombosis

DVT can be prevented by starting a healthy lifestyle, such as mild exercise to keep the body moving and blood circulation maintained, healthy diet patterns, weight loss for obese people, and do not smoke.
For those of you who have a DVT risk and are planning a long trip, make sure you have notified the plan to the nearest person or doctor. Also make sure you have an active travel health protection to prevent undesirable events during the trip. Some activities that should be done or paid attention during the trip, such as multiply drinking water and as much as possible avoid alcoholic beverages because it can cause dehydration. Other preventive measures can be done by avoiding the consumption of sleeping pills, increase exercise and legs, a short walk if possible, and use a stocking compression elastic.


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