DENGUE FEVER: understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Understanding Dengue fever

Dengue fever, also known by the general public Indonesia as dengue is a disease that can make the patient's body temperature becomes very high and is generally accompanied by headache, joint pain, muscle and bone, and pain in the back of the eye.
DENGUE FEVER: understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Actually, dengue fever and dengue are two different conditions, but the majority of Indonesian people already misguided. Dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a complication of dengue fever ( dengue fever) are deteriorated. Symptoms of dengue classified as severe (although at this stage the body heat decreased) of which is damage to the blood vessels and lymph nodes, vomiting with blood, bleeding from the gums and nose, shortness of breath, and swelling of the liver that cause pain in the abdomen.
Because most people already have misconceptions, then this article remain entitled "Dengue" but without reducing the value edukasinya.

The cause of dengue fever

Dengue fever is caused by a virus of dengue are spreading occurs through the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Because these insects is mediated by both, the dengue fever can not be transmitted from person to person directly should the flu. Mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus many breed in densely populated areas, for example in large cities humid and warm climates.
Dengue fever disease problems normally experienced by the subtropical and tropical countries, including Indonesia. There are an estimated one hundred million cases of dengue fever that occur in the world each year, even thousands of them infected in a short time due to an outbreak of the disease.

Dengue fever in Indonesia

According to data compiled by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia in 2013, there have been 112 511 cases of dengue fever in 34 provinces in Indonesia. Of these, there were 871 patients who died.
In 2014, cases of dengue fever in Indonesia has decreased. According to data collected until mid-December 2014, there have been 71 668 cases with 641 of them died.
The above data puts Indonesia as the country's number 1 in the Southeast Asia-related cases of dengue fever. While in the world, Indonesia is number 2 after Brazil.

Diagnosis and treatment of dengue fever

If you experience symptoms such as flu (eg, headache and high fever) for more than one week, you should consult your doctor. Moreover, if the symptoms are felt after a visit to the region that was hit by an outbreak of dengue fever.
The doctors who are used to dealing with dengue fever usually can instantly recognize this disease only of the symptoms that you feel. When the doctor who examines you are not sure that you are exposed to dengue fever, the blood tests can be performed for the presence of virus in the bloodstream. In addition to confirm the diagnosis, blood tests can also be conducted to determine the impact of the infection of the blood.
Until now there is no vaccine to prevent dengue fever, despite that the treatment of the disease is relatively simple and does not require a particular medication.
Dengue fever can be treated by drinking plenty of fluids, rest and taking paracetamol and acetaminophen. If step treatment is applied, usually symptoms of dengue fever will begin to show signs of recovery within 2-5 days.
It is not allowed to consume painkillers type of ibuprofen, aspirin, and naproxen sodium if you suffer from dengue fever because it feared could increase the risk of internal bleeding.

Prevention of dengue fever

Here are some of the measures of prevention of dengue fever that you can apply, including:
  • Sterilize the inside of your home with liquid spray mosquito repellent
  • Clean the tub and sprinkled powder in order to abate mosquito larvae die.
  • Close, flip, or if necessary to remove small media other water containers in your home.
  • Attach a wire Anti mosquito throughout your home ventilation.
  • Installing netting on the bed you sleep.
  • Wearing mosquito lotion, especially those containing N-diethyl meta toluamide (DEET), which proved effective. But do not use this product in infants under the age of two years.
  • Wearing loose clothing that can protect you from mosquito bites.
  • Conduct together to clean up the environment
  • Held fogging to sterilize the environment of mosquitoes and baby mosquito.

Complications of dengue fever

Although only a handful of cases, dengue fever can develop into complications more serious, that dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome which can lead to death due to severe bleeding.
Both are at high risk of complications experienced by people whose immune system is unable to fight dengue infection she suffered, or by people who have previously exposed to dengue fever and then exposed to these conditions return.
Immediately brought to the hospital when all around you there are people with dengue fever, whose symptoms lead to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.

Symptoms Of Dengue Fever

Here are some symptoms of dengue fever, including:
  • High body temperature that can reach 41 degrees Celsius
  • Body shivering
  • Loss of appetite
  • The body feels tired
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Reddish face
  • Joint, muscle, and bone pain
  • Nausea
  • Gag
  • Pain in the back of the eye
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • The appearance of red spots on the skin (especially in children)
In rare cases, dengue fever also causes the nose and gums to bleed very little (in contrast to the hemorrhagic dengue fever bleeding in which the volume of blood is high enough)
Dengue virus requires an incubation period just like other viruses in general. The incubation period is the time interval between the virus first enters the body until symptoms begin to appear. In dengue fever, symptoms usually only be felt after 4-10 days since the entry of the virus through mosquito bites.
Often it is difficult to distinguish between the symptoms of dengue fever and the common cold, especially if we have not read the information about the symptoms. Therefore, it would be nice we immediately checked to the doctor if in our family there who experienced the symptoms of dengue fever as mentioned above to prevent worsening conditions.
Some doctors are usually able to recognize dengue fever only from symptoms that patients feel, especially if they have often deal with this disease. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will usually perform a blood test to detect the presence of dengue virus in the body. Because of the many other conditions that can cause symptoms similar to dengue fever, then a blood test is important to do.

Causes Of Dengue Fever

Dengue fever is caused by dengue virus transmitted to humans through Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Unlike mosquitoes that generally find food at night,Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus generally bite in the morning until late afternoon.
Mosquito larva Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus often found in stagnant sewer water, ponds, reservoirs, or bathroom in our house. That means these insects make the water calm as a medium for breeding.
Areas that have poor sanitation levels, such as in densely populated cities located in developing countries (one of Indonesia), are areas that are often hit by dengue fever. In addition to the ever-increasing population, the spread of dengue virus is also supported by its ever-increasing mobility.
Dengue virus itself is divided into four strains or types, namely DEN 1, DEN 2, DEN 3, and DEN 4. When you contracted one type of dengue virus for the first time and managed to recover, then your body will form lifelong immunity against the type of virus The.However you are not completely safe from dengue fever because it is still potentially suffering from this disease again by a different type of virus.

Treatment Of Dengue Fever

If we can recognize the symptoms of dengue fever without the help of a doctor, then the treatment of dengue fever is quite easy to do in addition to the absence of a special drug devoted to this disease.
But the problem is we are not a doctor. Doctors themselves still need further tests, such as blood tests, to see the presence of dengue virus in the blood or ascertain whether the symptoms are caused by dengue fever and not other conditions.
If the symptoms that we experience is confirmed by dengue fever, then the advice of treatment that is generally given by doctors are:
  • Many rest.
  • Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration (especially to replace body fluids wasted due to symptoms of high fever and vomiting).
  • Take paracetamol and acetaminophen to relieve fever and pain.
  • Stop working for a while until the body is fully recovered.
As part of dengue hemorrhagic treatment advice, doctors generally prohibit us from taking ibuprofen, aspirin or naproxen sodium to relieve symptoms of fever and pain. Because these three drugs can trigger internal bleeding when consumed by patients with dengue fever.
If the above treatment suggestions are properly followed, the dengue fever usually begins to show signs of recovery within 3-5 days, then recovers in less than two weeks.
Most people will feel tired when they have just recovered from dengue fever, but this is natural and temporary. In fact there are some people who take up to one and a half months until the condition is really fit.
It is important to always monitor the development of dengue fever symptoms when these conditions are in the course of treatment. You are advised to see your doctor again if symptoms show no signs of recovery within 3-5 days. Even you are required to go to the hospital immediately if dengue fever leads to dengue hemorrhagic fever (dengue fever) and dengue shock syndrome after body temperature down (critical phase).

Complications Dengue fever

Beware of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome as two complication of dengue fever is deadly, although the two conditions are rare and are more at risk occurs in people whose immune system is unable to fight infection dengue fever, or in people who had previously been exposed to fever-dengue virus of a different type.
Before DBD appear, usually dengue fever patients will experience a drop in body temperature first. However, at this stage, damage and leakage of blood vessels begin to occur and decreased platelets. When symptoms of dengue fever is getting worse, then the patient will:
  • Abdominal pain was unbearable.
  • Bleeding in the skin, leaving a layer looks like a bruise.
  • Bleeding gums.
  • Bleeding from the mouth and nose.
  • Vomiting, accompanied by blood.
  • Swelling and damage to the liver.
  • Trouble in the lungs and heart.
  • Failure of the circulatory system.
If DBD late treated, it can develop into dengue shock syndrome in which blood pressure dropped dramatically and become increasingly severe bleeding.
To prevent deaths due to complications in the top two, then immediately take the dengue fever patients to the hospital if you look at the signs. In addition to providing intravenous fluids, doctors at the hospital will usually perform blood transfusions to replace blood is reduced, and blood pressure monitoring.

Prevention Of Dengue Fever

The best way to prevent dengue fever is to avoid self-infected mosquito bites virus because until now there is no vaccine that can counteract the fever. Here are some ways to avoid the bites of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and Aedes albopictus as an intermediary for dengue viruses:
  • Sterilize house with insect repellent that can be bought freely in the market or pharmacy.
  • Coordinate with neighborhood residents to do fogging to eradicate mosquito breeding.
  • Together with the neighbors to clean the gullies and throw away the garbage that can hold water as a medium to lay eggs by mosquitoes.
  • Clean the tub and sprinkle abate powder for mosquito larvae to die.
  • Closes, flips, or if necessary removes other small water container media in your home.
  • Install the wire antinyamuk throughout the ventilation of your home.
  • Put a mosquito net on your bed.
  • Wearing lotion antinyamuk, especially containing N-diethylmetatoluamide (DEET) that proved effective . But do not use this product around babies under the age of two.
  • Wearing enough clothes can protect you from mosquito bites.

Pictures Of Dengue Fever

Symptoms of dengue usually appear 13-14 days after incubation period. Its appearance is characterized by high fever, headache , chills, muscle aches , and painful joints. Nearly half the patients with dengue have a rash .
The rash that appears will usually affect most of the limbs, such as the palms of the hands and feet, but not on the face. The rash will last about 2-5 days. Dengue fever rash can disappear and reappear
Rash is more common in children with children, although adults may also experience it.
The picture above shows a rash of dengue fever that covers almost the entire body. White patches are part of the skin that is not covered in a rash.
Dengue 1
Dengue 3
Dengue hemorrhagic rash may be noticeable or known as a macular rash. In other cases a reddish rash looks prominent, known as a macular-papula rash.


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