Depression - Symptoms, causes and treats

Understanding Depression

Depression is one of the mental health disorders that occurs for at least two weeks or more that affect the mindset, feelings, mood ( mood ) and how to deal with everyday activities. When depressed we will feel sad prolonged, hopeless, have no motivation to move, lose interest in things that used to entertain, and blame themselves.
When depressed, a sad mood can last for weeks or even months.
 Depression - Symptoms, causes and treats
Many people who think depression is a trivial thing and can disappear by itself, when in fact, depression is a form of a disease that is more than just temporary emotional change. Depression is not a condition that can be changed quickly or directly.
Due to depression, daily activities such as school or work become unpleasant. In fact, to maintain relationships with other people and their own family feels so heavy. Depression can make you feel life is useless, even can trigger sufferers to commit suicide.
According to WHO records, at least 350 million people worldwide are depressed and more than 800,000 people die of suicide due to depression. There are still many depressed people who do not recognize their condition, so it is never addressed or at least discussed. Depression is more common in women than in men.
While in Indonesia alone, the cause of death due to depression was ranked eighth by contributing 3 percent of total mortality.
Depression can be divided into several types, such as persistent depression disorder, perinatal depression, bipolar disorder, major depression, seasonal affective disorder, psychotic depression. More explanations you can see on the page symptoms of depression.

Symptoms That Appear in Depression Patients

Symptoms and also the effects of depression vary in different people. The following are some of the psychological symptoms that arise from depression:
  • Losing your appetite for a hobby.
  • Feeling sad prolonged.
  • Easy to feel anxious.
  • Feeling life is hopeless.
  • Easy cry.
  • Feeling very guilty, worthless, and helpless.
  • Not confident.
  • Be very sensitive or irritable to those around.
  • There is no motivation to do anything.
  • Think or attempt suicide.
Physical symptoms of depression:
  • The body always feels tired.
  • Disorders in sleep patterns.
  • Feel the pain.
  • No appetite for sexual intercourse.
  • Move or speak more slowly.
  • Feeling unable to rest or difficulty to sit still.
  • Weight changes.
  • Headache.
  • Have cramps.
  • Indigestion without clear physical reason.
Without proper treatment and treatment, depression can disrupt relationships with those around you. For severe or severe depression, depression can result in a loss of desire for life and a desire for suicide.
When you feel some of the depressive symptoms experienced almost daily and take place every day for two weeks, see your doctor immediately so that the recovery process can be started and done completely.

Causes and Factors R siko Depression

There is no specific cause for depression. Depression is triggered by a combination of several factors, namely genetic, biological, environmental and psychological factors. If in your family health history there are people suffering from depression, then there is a tendency for you to experience it as well.
Some of the factors that can trigger the occurrence of depression include:
  • Tragic or significant incidents such as loss of a person or job.
  • Pregnancy and / or childbirth.
  • Financial Problem.
  • Isolated socially.
  • Childhood trauma.
  • Dependence on drugs and / or alcohol.
In addition to the above, some medical conditions that last long and life threatening can also trigger depression in the sufferer, such as  coronary heart disease , or cancer. Underactive thyroid gland, or minor head injury that damages the pituitary gland (small pituitary gland) can cause some symptoms such as extreme fatigue and loss of libido, this condition which can then lead to depression.

Treatment of Depression

The technique of treatment and treatment of depression depends greatly on the type and cause of the depression experienced. There are various types of antidepressants that are prescribed by doctors, and some can be self-administered.
Changes in life such as frequent exercise and reduced consumption of alcoholic beverages can provide benefits for people with depression. You can also join therapy groups to share stories and support each other.
The result of the most severe depression is the tendency to commit suicide. Try to always share stories with the people closest to you about the issues at hand. Patients are also strongly advised to see a doctor, especially if the depression has been long or severe. The earlier the treatment of depression, the possibility of a thorough recovery can be obtained.

Symptoms Of Depression

Feeling sad and depressed are similar, even signs or symptoms are almost the same. Sadness is the natural and normal reaction of humans when they lose something or are facing difficult times. Reactions to normal sad feelings may improve over time, but in cases of depression, the patient feels sad sustainably or even worsens.
In addition to sadness sustained, depressed people also feel hopeless and can not think positively about the future. Depression will have an impact on the productivity of sufferers, and to social relationships with those closest to them.
Patients with depression will find it difficult to work well. They also stay away from social activities or even alienate completely. In fact, depression can make us unable to enjoy hobbies or activities that were previously favored. Families and nearby people tend to be shunned.
The following are the psychological symptoms of depression:
  • Always burdened with guilt
  • Feeling hopeless
  • Always feeling anxious
  • Bad mood or sad sustained
  • Easily angry or sensitive, and easy to cry
  • Excessive worries
  • Feeling very inferior
  • Difficulty in making decisions
  • Slow thinking
  • There is no life motivation and no matter what happens in the environment and is willing to commit suicide
  • Can not enjoy the happiness of life
While the physical symptoms caused by depression are:
  • Always feel tired
  • Pain or pain for no apparent reason
  • Cyclical changes in  menstruation  in women
  • Sleep disorder
  • Constipation
  • Body movement and speech are slower than usual
  • No sexual arousal
  • Difficult to concentrate and hard to remember
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
The effects of depression vary. Here are the differences in the effect of depression by sex and age of the patient:
  • Woman. Depression is more common among women than among men. Not all women will experience the same symptoms of depression, but on average will feel sadness, feel worthless, and feel guilty. Biological factors, life cycles, hormonal, and psychosocial things that encourage women to experience depression.
  • Man. In general, symptoms of depression experienced by men differ from women. Men will usually feel very tired, frustrated, irritable, lose interest in something he has ever loved, and trouble sleeping.
  • Child. Depressed children may pretend to be unwell, refuse to go to school, want to stay close to their parents, or even worry that their parents will die. Because normal behavior in each child's development is different, it is very difficult to judge whether the child is just fussy for a while or is suffering from depression.
  • Teenagers. In this phase, usually, a person is forming an identity separate from his parents. Depressed teenagers will usually be sulky, troubled at school, feeling anxious, eating disorders, irritability, using illicit substances or consuming alcoholic beverages, and feel not understood by others. They also have a higher risk of committing suicide.
  • People older. Depression in the elderly will be difficult to observe because the symptoms are different and do not appear clearly. When suffering from depression, the elderly will look tired, have trouble sleeping, grumbling, and irritability.
There are several types of depressive disorders:
  • Persistent depression disorder ( dysthymia ), experiencing a depressed mood that persists for at least two years. Patients with this disorder may suffer symptoms of major depression that is not severe.
  • Perinatal depression is a common depression in women associated with pregnancy and after Only a small proportion of women who have just given birth experience depression.
  • Psychotic depression, depression types will happen when someone is experiencing severe depression coupled suffer psychotic states such as delusions or hallucinations.
  • Bipolar disorder . This condition is different from depression, but people with bipolar disorder will usually experience depression for some time. Bipolar sufferers may feel sad or depressed at an extreme level. On the contrary, he can also feel excessively happy.
  • Major depression. Severe symptoms of depression that can interfere with the ability of the patient to work, sleep, study, eat, and enjoy life. An episode that can happen only once in a person's lifetime, but someone else may experience some episodes of the depression.

Causes Of Depression

The specific causes of depression are unknown and the trigger factors for depression may vary. The combination of several factors causes the emergence of depression, including genetic, biological, environmental and psychological factors. Depression is usually not caused by a single event.
Depression can occur at any age, but the risk of depression increases with age.
Here are some risk factors that can lead to depression:
  • Traumatic events . Many events can lead to depression. People sometimes take a long time to receive traumatized events. If you can not accept it, people will be more at risk of depression. Some examples of such occurrences are torture or harassment, the death of a loved one, isolation of loneliness, problems in relationships (marriage, friendship, family, romance, and co-workers), and economic difficulties.
  • Serious illness . Sometimes depression appears simultaneously or as a reaction to a serious illness. Some chronic and life-threatening diseases may increase the risk of depression. For example  HIV / AIDS ,  coronary heart disease ,  diabetes , and cancer.
  • Personality . Feeling inferior, too harsh in self-judgment, and dependence on others can result in the emergence of depression. Personality like this can be derived from parents. The experience experienced and the way parents care also plays a role in one's personality.
  • Hereditary factors or family health history . There are families with a history of  depression, bipolar disorder,  alcoholism, and suicidal tendencies can increase a person's risk of depression.
  • After delivery . Hormonal and physical changes in women after childbirth are very influential in the female mindset. Additionally, the addition of new responsibilities and life due to the baby can also increase the risk of postpartum depression.
  • Drinks and drugs . Many people try to escape from the problem by drinking alcoholic beverages or using drugs. Precisely, it is important to note that alcoholic beverages are regarded as powerful depressant drugs, thus triggering and exacerbating depression experienced.
  • Certain medications . Some medications may increase your risk of depression. For example sleeping pills , medications for  hypertension ,  acne medications , and corticosteroids. Ask your doctor about side effects of medication and if you want to stop taking the drug, ask your doctor first.

Depression Treatment

Before determining the treatment step, your doctor will ask you a few things about your mental condition and also about your general health condition. Your doctor will ask you about the symptoms of depression you are experiencing and investigate what triggers are. In addition to verbal consultation, your doctor may perform blood tests to ensure that the symptoms are due to depression and not a health problem such as a thyroid hormone balance disorder  .
Sometimes, when a person is depressed, they can hardly imagine any medication that can help. In fact, depression will be easier to cure if it is handled faster. Be open to your doctor.
The handling done by the doctor depends on the type and cause of depression being suffered.


If depression is mild, ie depression with symptoms that do not interfere with the daily routine of the sufferer, self-treatment can be quite effective. There are several things you can do yourself to deal with depression. Self-deployed steps are:
  • Learn about depression . Understanding more about the disease experienced can help and motivate you in undergoing treatment performed. In order for the family to provide full support, ask them to learn about depression.
  • Exercising . This activity can help reduce symptoms of depression. Do sports such as walking, swimming, running, gardening or other physical activity. The main function of exercise is to increase the sense of confidence and reduce feelings of anxiety and sadness. In addition, exercise is also able to improve one's sleep quality.
  • Sleep enough . Adequate sleep is also very important for  both mental  and physical health.
  • Meditation or yoga . This activity can help in terms of relaxation. By learning how to control and calm the mind, symptoms of depression can become lighter.
  • Avoiding alcohol and drugs . Cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, and drugs may initially seem helpful, in fact this will only add to the problem for the long term.
  • Community supporters . Talking about your problem with a group of people with the same experience can reduce the perceived burden. You can start by talking to your closest friends or family. Find out about support groups in your area.
When you are depressed, try to talk about whatever you feel with your close people. At least you can explain to the doctor who handles. Never make any decisions when you feel sad or are experiencing symptoms of depression.

Speech Therapy

In addition to lifestyle changes and relaxation, here are some commonly used treatment options for depression:
  • Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
Applied to people who are held hostage by a certain mindset that harms them. For example, there is a woman who is very unconfident and dare not do anything because since childhood her mother often criticize. CBT will help him to get rid of negative thoughts and feelings about it and replace it with a positive response such as "I am an independent woman who can achieve anything I want."
  • Problem-Solving Therapy (PST)
PST can improve the ability of the sufferer to face the stressful experience, especially for the elderly depressed person. Patients will be asked to identify problems and get realistic solutions through a gradual process.
  • Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
The basic principle of IPT is that it improves communication patterns and interactions with others that can help alleviate depression. IPT helps analyze the causes of conflict with others such as contention with family members or conflicts with co-workers.
  • Psychodynamic Therapy
This therapy helps understand how emotions affect the behavior of people with depression. Patients will be helped to understand and find a way out of the problem.
  • Brain Stimulation Therapy.
If the administration of drugs does not reduce the symptoms of depression, then the doctor can perform electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients. Based on recent research results, ECT can make people with severe depression feel better. Patients do not feel pain when undergoing ECT, because that is distributed to the brain is an electrical impulse, but can cause side effects such as confusion, disorientation and memory loss. These side effects can only be briefly, or may take longer.
The above therapies are generally performed by a psychiatrist, psychologist or therapist.

Drugs Used To Overcome Depression

In addition to self-handling, depression can also be treated with medication. Especially in cases of more severe depression, the above steps will need to be supported with the following medications:
  • Antidepressants . These drugs are used to treat the symptoms of depression. There are many options for antidepressants. These drugs are given as prescribed by a doctor. The success rate and impact of antidepressants vary by person. Examples of antidepressant drugs are fluoxetin, citalopram and amitriptylin. The use of antidepressant drugs will generally require regular doctoral monitoring, especially in early use. Usually, antidepressant drugs take 2 to 4 weeks to work and begin to relieve the symptoms felt by the patient.
  • Lithium . This drug may be recommended by a doctor if antidepressants are not strong enough to relieve symptoms of depression. Lithium can turn into toxins if levels are too high in the blood. Therefore, patients who consume lithium need to do a regular test to monitor the level of lithium in the blood.
Severe and untreated depression can cause the sufferer to lose motivation to live and eventually decide to commit suicide. Try to discuss any issues with the people closest to you or with your doctor. Recognize the symptoms of depression if it occurs to those around you. The faster the treatment and treatment performed, the overall recovery chance becomes higher.


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