URTICARIA : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Understanding Urticaria

biduran or urticaria are skin reactions characterized by red or white wax that itch. This bilur can appear in one part of the body or spread to other body parts. The size and shape of the wound can vary, from a few millimeters to the size of a hand. One common cause of heresy is the allergy.

In addition to itching, rash in URTICARIA cases can also feel sore or stinging. This rash can appear in all parts of the body, including face, lips, tongue, throat, and ears. Symptoms of heresy may last for several hours or days.
URTICARIA : understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

There are various types of urticaria. Urticaria that occurs for less than six weeks is referred to as acute urticaria. In addition, there are also cases of urticaria that last more than six weeks or are recurrent for several months or even years. This rare condition is referred to as chronic urticaria. Chronic urticaria may be a symptom of another disease, such as thyroid disease or lupus.
In addition to acute and chronic urticaria, there is also the so-called physical urticaria and dermatography. Physical urticaria is caused by direct physical stimulation of the skin, such as hot or cold temperature stimulation, sunlight, pressure, vibration, or sweat. While dermatographism is a skin condition that is formed after scratching the skin hard.
URTICARIA itself is a common condition experienced by all people of all ages. However, heresy is more common in children and women at the age of 30-60 years. In addition, people who have a history of allergy are also more at risk to experience it.

Causes of URTICARIA or Biduran

The appearance of wounds on the skin is triggered by high levels of histamine and other chemical compounds released by the layer beneath the skin, causing tissue swelling. Histamine can sometimes cause leaking of plasma fluid from the blood vessels, resulting in fluid accumulation or angioedema. Excess fluid is also what causes skin swelling and itching. The release of histamine which causes the heresy can be triggered by various things, including:
The following are some of the things that could lead to heresy:
  • Exposure to hot or cold air.
  • Contact with triggers or allergens (eg insect bites).
  • Certain drugs (eg antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
  • Infection (eg influenza).
The exact cause of urticaria can not be ascertained. However, some factors can also aggravate the symptoms that exist, including the consumption of alcoholic beverages or caffeinated drinks, stress, and hot temperatures.

How to Recognize URTICARIA or urticaria on the Skin

Doctors can ascertain whether a patient is exposed to a lymph through examination of any wounds or rashes on the skin directly. In addition to checking, your doctor will also ask for your bid history to confirm the cause. If the URTICARIA has been going on for days or more than six weeks, it is certain that the cause is not an allergy.

How to Treat URTICARIA or urticaria

URTICARIA or urticaria generally do not require special treatment. These symptoms will usually disappear within a few days. If it feels very intrusive, drugs antihistamines can be used to treat itchiness. For more severe cases, consume tablets corticosteroids.

URTICARIA or Urticaria and accompanying Diseases

Some health conditions may accompany URTICARIA , two of which are angioedema and anaphylaxis.
Angioedema is a swelling of the deeper layers of the skin. This swelling usually occurs in the eyes, lips, and genitals.
While anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction and occur suddenly to cause death. This condition is considered an emergency due to some extreme symptoms. The following are other anaphylactic symptoms:
  • Swelling of the eyelids, lips, hands, and feet.
  • Shortness of breath caused by airway constriction.
  • Dizzy.
  • Fainting.
  • Pain and nausea in the abdomen.
  • Throws up.
People who have asthma or eczema are more at risk of developing anaphylaxis than others. Although a serious condition, anaphylactic sufferers can fully recover from the origin properly handled and quickly.


The bleeding that comes from the bruise usually feels very itchy with different size and location. Some of the symptoms or signs URTICARIA are:

  • Mucus or rash is almost oval or worm-shaped.
  • A strong itchiness.
  • Red or white.
The width of the rash or wound can reach several centimeters. There are several trigger factors that can aggravate the symptoms of URTICARIA that is being experienced, namely:
  • Conditions of stress
  • Alcoholic beverages or contain caffeine.
  • Hot temperatures.
Avoid the above factors in order not to aggravate the symptoms URTICARIA experienced. If the symptoms of the URTICARIA feel worse and last more than a few days, see your doctor immediately.

Urticaria Vasculitis

Urticaria vasculitis is a condition when the blood vessels in the skin are inflamed or inflamed. This type of urticaria is rare. The blur of this species lasts longer than a day. In addition to feel much more pain, this wound can also leave a bruise.


Urticaria occurs when the body is exposed to allergic reactions, food chemicals, insect stings, sun exposure, or drugs. These things cause the body to secrete a chemical compound called histamine. This histamine will cause the release of plasma in the blood, thus triggering the itching and swelling of surrounding tissue.

There are several conditions that trigger the occurrence of urticaria, both acute and chronic. Among others are:
Acute Urticaria
Acute urticaria is an urticaria whose symptoms are no more than six weeks. Unfortunately, more than half of cases of acute urticaria are unknown. The following are some of the factors that allegedly trigger acute urticaria, including:
  • Allergic reactions to factors present in the environment, such as pollen, dust mites, insect bites, or certain chemicals.
  • Allergies to foods such as nuts, seafood, eggs, and milk.
  • Stress.
  • Insect bites.
  • Infections, both mild like colds to serious ones like HIV.
  • Side effects of drugs, such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and aspirin.
  • Health conditions, including immune disorders (eg lupus and cancer), as well as bacterial or viral infections (eg HIV hepatitis).
  • Environmental factors, such as changes in hot or cold temperatures, sunlight, and water quality.
Chronic urticaria
In cases of chronic urticaria, symptoms last more than six weeks. Usually the cause of this condition is more difficult to know, but can also be the same as acute urticaria.
The antibodies produced by the immune system trigger the release of histamine and this results in chronic urticaria. Not fully known why the immune system can respond to trigger factors by mistakenly attacking normal body cells. Therefore, there are several cases of chronic urticaria that appear with other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Especially in chronic urticaria, this condition is recurrent. Urticaria will appear and disappear within a certain period of time. Some of the triggers or factors that aggravate chronic urticaria include:
  • Eating beverages containing alcohol or caffeine.
  • Hot weather.
  • Pressure on the skin for a long time such as using clothes that are too tight.
  • Wearing clothes that are too tight for a long time.
  • Consume drugs such as anti-hypertensive drugs such as ACE inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and painkillers.
  • Eating additives present in foods or beverages.
  • Experiencing stress.
  • Bites or insect stings.
In addition to the above, chronic urticaria can also occur due to intestinal infections, disorders of the thyroid gland, and hepatitis.

Diagnosis Of URTICARIA

The urticaria diagnosis will be made by the physician by asking questions about the patient's illness history and performing a thorough physical examination. This is so that in the future patients can avoid it. Doctors will ask about when and how the symptoms of urticaria occur and if something new happens such as changes in the environment or eating foods that have never been eaten before.
Blood and skin tests or allergies may need to be done to find out if you are allergic to anything. But more than half of cases of acute urticaria are unknown.
In chronic urticaria, allergy testing is rarely performed because it is rarely caused by an allergic reaction. Some tests performed to determine the cause of chronic urticaria are:
  • Calculation of antibody levels in the blood.
  • A complete blood test, to check normal levels of normal red blood cells.
  • Liver function tests, to detect liver disorders.
  • Taking stool samples to see if there is any infection in the intestine.
  • Thyroid function test.
  • Blood-End Rate Test (LED) to recognize problems with the immune system.

Treatment Of URTICARIA

Case URTICARIA mostly light and can heal in two days. Treatment or treatment is adjusted to the level of symptoms experienced and the cause.

Acute Urticaria

Treatments given to address acute strains are:
  • Antihistamines . These drugs stop the itching and reduce the wounds that appear by inhibiting histamine. These drugs are not recommended to be given to pregnant women because their safety is unknown. Examples of antihistamine drugs are loratadine , cetirizine , and fexofenadine .
  • rtichosteroids . These drugs are given to alleviate severe lethal symptoms. Corticosteroids work by inhibiting the performance of the immune system. An example of the drug is prednisolone . This drug is not for long-term consumption. Long-term use can cause side effects such as hypertension , cataracts, glaucoma , and diabetes .

Chronic urticaria

Drugs used to treat chronic urticaria or who persist for more than six weeks are:
  • Antihistami H1 and H2. During the symptoms URTICARIA appears, it is advisable to consume antihistamine The dose is drunk according to the symptoms encountered.
As the appearance of the rash gets worse, H2 antihistamine drugs can be consumed to overcome the condition of the rash by constricting the blood vessels. Antihistamine H2 has side effects such as headache, diarrhea and dizziness. Do not operate heavy equipment or vehicles if taking this medicine. Commonly used H2 Antihistamines include: cimetidine , famotidine  and ranitidine .
  • rtichosteroids . Severe chronic relapses may also be treated with corticosteroids. Side effects of this drug is increased appetite, weight gain, mood swings and difficulty sleeping. It is therefore not recommended for long term use.
  • Leukotriene receptor antagonists . These medications help reduce swelling and redness of the skin. Side effects are quite mild, such as nausea and headaches that can be used for a long period of time.
  • Omaluzimab . This drug can reduce the type of antibodies in the body that play a role of URTICARIA. This drug is given by injection.
  • Cyclosporine. Just like corticosteroids, these drugs also inhibit the immune system that mistakenly attack healthy body cells. Side effects caused by these drugs include hypertension, kidney problems, headache, elevated blood cholesterol , tremors or tremors, and increase the risk of infection.
There are several ways to help relieve symptoms experienced by urticaria:
  • Avoid scratching parts that appear wounds or rashes.
  • Do not use soaps that contain harsh chemicals.
  • Keep the affected area of the skin cool, not covered with tight clothes, and smeared with lotion or a cold compress to help soothe the skin and avoid scratching the skin.
  • Use loose and light clothing.
  • Avoid trigger factors such as additives in foods, alcoholic beverages, painkillers, hot or cold conditions and stress.
You can lower your risk of being hit by:
  • Minghindari trigger factor. Avoiding some things like drugs, food, stress, and temperature can help reduce the frequency of recurrence. This trigger factor varies from person to person, so it's important for everyone to identify what triggers this condition.
  • Food. In some cases, URTICARIA may be caused by food. Therefore, you can prevent the occurrence of bidik in the future by recording the types of foods that can aggravate or cause URTICARIA. You can consult this with a nutritionist to ensure you keep getting the best nutrition.

Complications Of URTICARIA

Urticaria can greatly affect the lives of sufferers especially those who experience it in the long run. If not treated at all, an urticarial rash that often spreads throughout the body and itching will interfere with daily activities of the sufferer and even lead to various complications, including:


Patients with chronic or acute urticaria may experience angioedema, the inner lining of the skin swollen by fluid accumulation. The parts that are usually affected by angioedema are the eyelids, lips, hands, feet, and around the genitals.
This disorder can last longer than URTICARIA, although the symptoms of swelling on the skin is usually reduced within 24 hours. One of the causes of this condition is the use of drugs, such as antihypertensive drugs (ACE inhibitors), non-steroidal antihistamines and painkillers ( codeine ).
To overcome angioedema, antihistamines and steroids for a short period of time can be used.
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that occurs suddenly. This condition can be fatal because of its extreme symptoms. Anaphylaxis causes a decrease in blood pressure so that people who experience can be passed away or to death.
In addition, swelling will occur directly on the face and throat or neck so that the patient will be difficult to breathe. Other anaphylactic symptoms are:
  • Swelling of the eyelids, lips, hands, feet
  • Pain or nausea in the abdomen
  • Rapid heartbeat or difficulty breathing because the air flow narrows
  • Dizzy
  • Throws up
  • Fainting or lost consciousness
The only treatment used for anaphylaxis is by taking epinephrine injections . This drug serves to reduce the reaction of symptoms that occur in anaphylaxis. Keep in mind that this is an emergency, if you suspect anaphylactic symptoms, see a doctor at a nearby hospital immediately.

Bumps are skin reactions that cause red or white red wax and itch, but can also feel sore or stinging. The blur can appear on any part of the body and generally appears in one part of the body before it eventually spreads to other body parts. The size of the wound can vary, ranging from only a few millimeters to several centimeters.

Biduran01 - Alodokter
Bilur has the characteristics that if the center of the red is pressed it will change color to white. After the pressure is released, red welt again. Lump lumps also have a clear edge.
Mushrooms arising from physical activity will usually disappear within 1-2 hours, but if not lost for more than 1.5 days it is probably an allergic reaction to medication or food.
Below are pictures of wounds that appear after 10 minutes of exercise. The increase in temperature in the body triggers the appearance of URTICARIA measuring about 1-5 mm.
Biduran02 - Alodokter
The blur and the rash on the lining look similar to the rash caused by exposure. The letters that appear can initially be separated and then combine to form larger weltes.
Biduran03 - Alodokter


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