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VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS: understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Definition Of Ventricular Septal Defects

Ventricular septal defect or ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a congenital heart defect in the form of a hole in the dividing wall (septum) between the right ventricle and left ventricle of the heart. In most cases, ventricular septal defect appears at the bottom of the aortic valve. This valve controls the flow of blood from the left ventricle to the blood vessels in the body's main artery, the aorta.
VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS: understanding, symptom, Cause, diagnosis, Treatment and complication

Ventricular septal defect causes oxygen-rich blood is not pumped to the whole body, but went back into the lungs. As a result, your heart work harder. Abnormalities of the heart's anatomy is generally a congenital abnormality obtained from birth. If small, ventricular septal defect can be closed by itself after some time. However, if large, this hole must be closed through surgery.
Under normal conditions, blood is pumped from the heart to the right part to the lungs to get oxygen, and went back to the left side of the heart. Then the left side of the heart to pump charge of the oxygen-rich blood throughout the body. The presence of a ventricular septal defect causes blood from the left ventricle of the heart with oxygen-rich blood mixed in the right ventricle of the heart is not oxygenated. This forces the heart, either the right or the left, to work harder.

Symptoms of ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defect is often not directly detectable at birth, especially if the hole is small defect. These abnormalities may even have no symptoms until well into childhood.
Ventricular septal defect Symptoms vary, depending on the hole size of the defect and the presence or absence of coexisting cardiac defects. Here are some of the symptoms of ventricular septal defect often found in infants or children:
  • Shortness of breath and easily tired.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Weight gain is inhibited.
  • Panting and sweating profusely when eating or crying.
  • Pale skin, and may turn blue around the lips and nails.
  • Frequent respiratory infections.
  • Fast heart rate and irregular.
These symptoms would be very dangerous if neglected and can be fatal.
In adults, symptoms of ventricular septal defect is usually a good panting with exertion or when lying down, fast heart rate and irregular, and often feel tired and weak. The symptoms appear generally lighter so often overlooked. However, if not addressed, could become more severe complaints.

Causes of ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defect is generally a congenital heart defect due to a disturbance in the process of formation during the fetal heart, in which a dividing wall between the right ventricle and the left ventricle of the heart does not close completely. The cause of this disorder itself remains unclear. However, it is known that ventricular septal defects are more common in Asians, in people with a history of congenital heart disease in the family, and in people with genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome.
Although very rare, ventricular septal defect may also occur in adulthood, usually after a heart attack or injury to the chest.

The diagnosis of ventricular septal defect

On physical examination, patients with ventricular septal defect, the doctor will find their heart murmur (heart sounds that sounded like rustling). Follow-up examinations were then performed to confirm the diagnosis are:
  • Pulse Oximeter . A portable tool to measure oxygen levels in the blood by placing the sensor in the patient's fingertip.
  • Echocardiogram . This test is done to get a picture of the heart and its parts using sound waves. The resulting image is graphically displayed on the screen to move the appliance.
  • Cardiac catheterization . This method is done by inserting a thin elastic hose (catheter) through a vein in the groin, neck or arms, to be directed toward the heart.
Besides, we can also do some of the following checks to see if complications have occurred:
  • Chest X-rays . Imaging method with electromagnetic waves to see the condition of the heart and lungs.
  • Elektokardiogram . This test is done by attaching leads to the skin to record the electrical activity of the heart.

Treatment of Ventricular Septal Defects

Surgery is the main treatment option, particularly when the defect holes are large and cause significant symptoms. Medications can be given to treat symptoms before surgery can be performed, or until the patient's condition allows for surgery. Ventricular septal defect is small, it is often the hole can close by itself. In such cases, the drugs can also be given for symptoms that may arise, while monitoring the patient's progress.
Some surgical procedures are generally performed:
  • Closure catheter . The closure of the hole in the septum done with the process of cardiac catheterization, without performing surgery.
  • Cardiac surgery . Done by opening the chest cavity and perform suturing holes in the septum of the heart. During the surgery progresses, the heart and lungs temporarily replaced by a machine called a heart-lung machine .
  • The combined procedure (hybrid procedure) . In the combined procedure, incisions are made only small to insert a catheter into the heart without opening the chest cavity and without the need to stop the heart while working. Closure of the hole in the septum and then carried through the catheter. With more minimal injury, recovery time with this procedure is of course faster than a surgical procedure.
Drugs that can be given to treat the symptoms that appear on the ventricular septal defect, among others:
  • DiuretikThis type of drug used to reduce excess fluid from the body so that the work of the heart is lighter and the patient feels better.
  • Vasodilators . Can reduce the pressure in the left atrium of heart patients and make the heart beat more regularly.
  • Digoxin . Adding to the power of the heart muscle to pump blood.

Complications defect ventricle septum

Ventricular septal defect small size probably will not cause problems. However, if the defect hole medium to large, these disorders can cause serious problems that may lead to death, therefore must be addressed.
The longer the ventricular septal defect is left untreated, the worse are also problems and symptoms caused. Handling initial aim to prevent complications such as pulmonary hypertension, hypoxemia, hypoxia, endocarditis, and other disorders.

Prevention of ventricular septal defect

In general, nothing can be done to prevent the occurrence of ventricular septal defect. But at least the application of a good lifestyle for maintaining a healthy pregnancy and fetus during pregnancy remains to be done. Among others are:
  • Eating a healthy diet.
  • Regular exercise.
  • A balanced diet.
  • Keep away from cigarettes, drugs, and alcohol.
  • Avoid themselves from infection.
  • Controlling diabetes.

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