Top Ten Public Health Issues in Nepal
1. Childhood Diseases
Childhood diseases including diarrheal and acute respiratory diseases: The seasonal diarrheal diseases and respiratory diseases affect substantial number of children in Nepal leading to deaths and developmental delays. The malnourished and undernourished children are equally prevalent and Hence childhood diseases are still the number one priority in public health in Nepal. Neonatal mortality rate (21 per 1000), infant mortality rate (32 per 1000) and under 5 mortality rate (39 per 1000), are still high enough making it number one public health problem in Nepal.
2. Water and Sanitation
The timeline of health and longevity of the people in the developed countries can be traced back to sanitary reforms in those countries and the resulting long life expectancy and healthy life can be attributed to the adequate supply of potable water, appropriate sanitary facilities, waste management. However, Nepal and other developing countries are miles away to reach that level as the waste management and other sanitary reforms are at nascent phase, though progressive. There are 38% of households without improved sanitary facilities in Nepal.
3. Maternal and perinatal health problems
Still women in Nepal die during pregnancy and childbirth due to untimely management of complications such as antepartum hemorrhage, postpartum hemorrhage, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia. This is especially intensified by lack of adequate facilities and manpower in rural area of the country. Even though the tertiary level care facilities are available in major cities, many parts of the countries are devoid of such care and it takes several hours or days to reach to such care resulting in delays in care, subsequently fatal consequences to many women and children.